Tovi Lehmann's Research Group:

Population Biology of Mosquitoes & Parasites

Our research explores broad population biology questions relevant to patterns of malaria transmission and vector control. Ecological, genetical, behavioral, and molecular approaches are routinely used. We seek discoveries that improve understanding of phenotypic diversity in vector species, its adaptive value, and epidemiological consequences. Studies are conducted at the National Institutes of Health in Rockville, Maryland, and at the Malaria Research and Training Center (MRTC) in Bamako, Mali. The group is nested in the Office of the Chief, LMVR/NIAID/NIH, Dr. Thomas Wellems.

Main Research Questions

How do aestivation ("dry-season hibernation") and long-distance migration contribute to the persistence of mosquito vectors in areas without surface waters during the dry season?

What ecological and evolutionary forces split the molecular forms of An. gambiae from a common gene pool and what mechanisms prevent gene flow between them?

What shapes susceptibility to pathogens in natural vector populations?

Current Research Projects:

  • Population dynamics and seasonal variation is spatial distribution of An. gambiae in the Sahel (led by A. Dao and A.S. Yaro)

    In Africa, malaria is transmitted primarily by Anopheles gambiae and A. arabiensis. These vectors exploit diverse environments including semi-arid areas, where surface waters required for larval development are absent for several months a year. How mosquitoes persist throughout the long dry season has been debated for decades. Recent evidence showed that the M form A. gambiae aestivate (extended survival throughout the 6 month dry season), but the role of migration from distant areas remained unresolved. We analyze the vector population dynamics and spatial distribution in a Sahelian village from 2008 to the present to discern its annual cycle and decipher the processes that shape it. The spatial mosquito distribution during this period showed higher aggregation during the dry season. The high-density houses during the dry season differed from those of the wet season. One or two adjacent hotspots were detected in the dry season and their location remained stable between years. Season-specific, stable, and focal hotspots are consistent with the predictions based on local shelters used by aestivating mosquitoes. Targeting mosquitoes in their aestivation shelters may be highly cost-effective, once we can find these shelters.

  • Identifying phenotypic changes associated with seasonality and aestivation (led by D. Huestis and A.S. Yaro)

    Environmental variation over the course of a year (seasonality) can lead to phenotypic variation within a year and between locations experiencing different environmental patterns. This variation can be due to plasticity within a population and/or genetic divergence between populations – both of which are driven by natural selection of local environmental conditions. In the Sahel, we observe distinct seasonality between the wet season and the dry season, and hypothesize that mosquitoes are aestivating to survive the long, hot, dry season. Thus, we have designed a series of phenotypic assays to identify changes in metabolism, flight activity, feeding response, and oviposition between wet-season and dry-season individuals. The ultimate goal of these projects is to identify traits which will allow us to distinguish between individuals which are not aestivating from those which are in aestivation (or destined for aestivation or emerging from aestivation).

  • Identifying molecular changes associated with seasonality and aestivation (led by D. Huestis)

    Along with identifying phenotypic differences associated with seasonality, we are also undertaking several projects to explore changes at the molecular level that may result from plasticity or other responses to differing environmental conditions. Specifically, we will be analyzing changes in gene expression, nutritional reserves, and cuticular hydrocarbons with respect to seasonality. Specimens have been collected in both the wet season and the dry season for use in RNA analyses, which may include microarrays, real-time PCR of candidate genes, and next-generation high-throughput sequencing. Additionally, mosquitoes have been collected and preserved for nutritional analysis to compare the total protein content and the lipid and carbohydrate reserves of wet-season vs. dry-season individuals. Lastly, we hypothesize that the cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles between individuals in aestivation should be significantly different from non-aestivators, both as a barrier to moisture-loss and due to age, and are conducting gas-chromatography to obtain these CHC profiles.

  • Finding the hidden shelters used by malaria vectors (Led by A. Dao and A.S. Yaro)

    During the dry season, extensive searches were undertaken to find mosquitoes inside wells, rodent burrows, termite mounds, tree-holes, toilettes, granaries, and virtually any hole in and around houses. However, very few mosquitoes were discovered. Recently, we have employed sniffing dogs, expertly trained by Mr. Sapir Weiss (Olivet Kennel & Dog Training Resort, Santa Rosa, CA) to detect naturally-caught and scent-tagged mosquitoes after their release. The sensitivity and specificy of the dogs were over 90% under field conditions as measured by blind tests. Several putative shelter were indicated by the dogs and are being evaluated to determine if they harboured mosquitoes. The study has been funded in large part by the Tamaki Foundation.

  • Long-distance migration of malaria vectors (Led by A. Dao and D. Huestis)

    The possiblity of long-distance migration of malaria vectors is being addressed based on monitoring rapid changes in density and composition along transects over 100 km long and aerial sampling reaching 200 m above ground. Monitoring is conducted synchronously across 8 villages every 2 days or every 2 weeks, depending on changes in density observed on the ground. This component allows for dissecting sequence of rapid changes (waves) in mosquito density to be tracked. The aerial sampling of mosquitoes is aimed at detecting seasonal migrations of these mosquitoes at altitudes of 10-200 m, in relation the the changes on the ground. The study has been funded in part by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation through a grant to Dr. Frank Collins and colleagues at Notre Dame.

  • Swarming and mating behavior of the molecular forms of An. gambiae and An. arabiensis(led by A.S. Yaro)

    The extent of reproductive isolation between the molecular forms of An. gambiae is the focus of much debate. Positive assortative mating has been detected under natural conditions (Tripet et al. 2001), but the mechanism that mediates it is unknown. Our study aims at identifying differences in the forms mating systems that facilitate their assortative mating. Spatial and temporal segregation between swarms of the molecular forms in sympatric areas are investigated along with within-swarm mate recognition cues.

  • Does oviposition deprivation make dangerously old and mean mosquitoes? (Led by M. Artis)

    The African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, needs surface water to lay their eggs; when this is compromised in the dry season or during shorter dry spells, mosquitoes take specific yet unknown measures to increase their longevity until larval sites can be found. The longer a female mosquito survives, the more dangerous she becomes due to higher probability she will acquire and transmit malaria. In the Sahel region of Africa, there are long and short dry periods where larval sites are not available, and, during this time, mosquitoes are oviposition-deprived. Previous work by our group demonstrated that egg-laying and hatch rates were greatly reduced following oviposition deprivation but could be rescued by additional blood meals (Dieter et al. 2012). The effect of oviposition deprivation on longevity and feeding rate of A. gambiae in the focus of this project.

  • Can seasonal changes in photoperiod and temperature induce dry-season diapause in the African malaria mosquito? (Led by D. Huestis)

    In the Sahel the dry season lasts 5-7 months, during which no oviposition sites are available. The mechanisms of population persistence during these harsh environmental conditions are still largely unknown; however, our previous work has indicated that M-form A. gambiae likely undergo aestivation (dry-season diapause) while S-form A. gambiae and A. arabiensis populations are maintained by seasonal migration. The rapid changes in photoperiod that occur in the Sahel when larval sites begin to dry could be the environmental signal used by mosquitoes to induce the physiological and behavioral changes that underlie diapause. To test this hypothesis, we established new mosquito colonies from our Malian field site and simulated the actual seasonal shifts in photoperiod at this location using light boxes (simulating the wet season, transition period, and dry season). Our data suggest that seasonal shifts in photoperiod do affect phenotypic traits of these taxa and thus photoperiodic cues could be utilized by mosquitoes in the field to initiate life-history changes in preparation for the dry season.


A new Postdoc position is now open in our group (Apply by November 4, 2013)!
We are looking for a highly motivated, independently-thinking individual, who wants to design and conduct field and/or laboratory studies on the dry season ecology, behavior, and physiology of anophelines in the Sahel. A Ph.D. in entomology, ecology, behavior, quantitative/population genetics, or related field and at least one first-author publication are required. Experience in field biology, molecular biology, parasitology, and statistical analysis is desirable. No more than 5 years since completion of Ph.D. degree. To apply, please send CV, statement of research interests, reprints of recent papers, and names of three references to Office of the Chief c/o Wendy Hamm:, LMVR, NIAID, NIH.

Candidates with external funding are always encouraged to apply.

A postbac fellow position may be available by August. Applications are wellcome especially by students motivated to develop research career in related fields. More information on the Postbaccalaureate Intramural Research Training Award (IRTA) Program and application forms are fount here: NIH Postbac Program

Group Members

Rockville Bamako
Diana Huestis, Postdoc email
Adama Dao, PhD email
Monica Artis, Postbac email
Alpha Seydou Yaro email
Andre Laughinghouse email
Moussa Diallo email
Kevin Lee email
Zana Lamissa email

Selected Publications

(View more publications by Tovi Lehmann in PubMed.)

Lehmann T, Dao A, Yaro AS, Diallo M, Timbiné S, Huestis DL, Adamou A, Kassogu Y, Traor AI 2013. Seasonal variation in spatial distributions of Anopheles gambiae in a Sahelian village: evidence for aestivation. J. Med. Entomol.: In Press.

Alvaro Molina-Cruz, Lehmann T and Julia Knckel 2013. Could culicine mosquitoes ever transmit human malaria? Trends in Prasitology: In Press.

Dabire KR, Sawadodgo S, Diabate A, Toe KH, Kengne P, Ouari A, Costantini C, Gouagna C, Simard F, Baldet T, Lehmann T, Gibson G. 2013. Assortative mating in mixed swarms of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. M and S molecular forms, in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Med Vet Entomol. 27:298-312. pdf

Maga H, Dabir RK, Lehmann T, Tripet F, Diabat A. 2012. Variation in energy reserves and role of body size in the mating system of Anopheles gambiae. J Vector Ecol. 37:289-97. Abstract

Dieter KL, Huestis DL, Lehmann T 2012. The effects of oviposition-site deprivation on Anopheles gambiae reproduction. Parasit Vectors.16:235. pdf

Butail S, Manoukis N, Diallo M, Ribeiro JM, Lehmann T, Paley DA. 2012. Reconstructing the flight kinematics of swarming and mating in wild mosquitoes. J R Soc Interface. 9:2624-38. Abstract

Huestis DL, Yaro AS, Traor AI, Dieter KL, Nwagbara JI, Bowie AC, Adamou A, Kassogu Y, Diallo M, Timbin S, Dao A, Lehmann T. 2012 Seasonal variation in metabolic rate, flight activity and body size of Anopheles gambiae in the Sahel. J Exp Biol. 215:2013-21. pdf

Yaro AS, Traor AI, Huestis DL, Adamou A, Timbin S, Kassogu Y, Diallo M, Dao A, Traor SF, Lehmann T. 2012. Dry season reproductive depression of Anopheles gambiae in the Sahel. J Insect Physiol. 58:1050-9. pdf

Diabat A, Yaro AS, Dao A, Diallo M, Huestis DL, Lehmann T. 2011. Spatial distribution and male mating success of Anopheles gambiae swarms. BMC Evol Biol. 28;11:184. pdf

Huestis DL, Yaro AS, Traor AI, Adamou A, Kassogu Y, Diallo M, Timbin S, Dao A, Lehmann T. 2011. Variation in metabolic rate of Anopheles gambiae and A. arabiensis in a Sahelian village. J Exp Biol. 15;214(Pt 14):2345-53. pdf

Hume JC, Hamilton H 3rd, Lee KL, Lehmann T. 2011. Susceptibility of Anopheles stephensi to Plasmodium gallinaceum: a trait of the mosquito, the parasite, and the environment. PLoS One. 6(6):e20156. pdf

Adamou A, Dao A, Timbine S, Kassogu Y, Yaro AS, Diallo M, Traor SF, Huestis DL, Lehmann T. 2011. The contribution of aestivating mosquitoes to the persistence of Anopheles gambiae in the Sahel. Malar J. 6;10:151. pdf

Dao A, Kassogue Y, Adamou A, Diallo M, Yaro AS, Traore SF, Lehmann T.2010. Reproduction-longevity trade-off in Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 47(5):769-77. pdf

Lehmann T Adama Dao, Alpha Seydou Yaro, Abdoulaye Adamou, Yaya Kassogue, Moussa Diallo Traore Sekou and Cecilia Coscaron-Arias. 2010. Aestivation of the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae in the Sahel. Am. J Trop. Med Hyg. 83: 601-606. pdf

Dao A, Yaya Kassogue, Abdoulaye Adamou, Moussa Diallo, Alpha Seydou Yaro, Sekou F. Traore, and Lehmann T. 2010. Reproduction - longevity trade-off in Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) J Med Entomol. 47:769-77. pdf

Diabate A, Dao A, Yaro AS, Adamou A, Gonzalez R, Manoukis NC, Traore SF, Gwadz RW, and Lehmann T. 2009 Spatial swarm segregation and reproductive isolation between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae. Proc Biol Sci. 276:4215-22. pdf

Manoukis NC, Diabate A, Adamou A, Diallo M, Dao A, Yaro AS, Ribeiro JMC and Lehmann T 2009. Structure and Dynamics of Male Swarms of Anopheles gambiae. Journal of Medical Entomology: In Press. pdf

Lehmann T, Hume JCC, Licht M, Burns CS, Wollenberg K, Simard S, and Ribeiro JMC. 2009. Molecular evolution of immune genes in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. PLoS ONE 4(2): e4549. pdf

Dao A, Adamou A, Yaro SA, Maiga HM, Kassogue Y, Traore SF and Lehmann T. 2008. Assessment of alternative mating strategies in Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae): Does mating occur indoors? J Med Entomol. 45:643-652. pdf

Lehmann T and Diabate A. 2008. The molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: A phenotypic perspective. [A Review] Infect. Genet. Evol. 8:737-46. pdf

Diabate Abdoulaye, Dabire K Roch, Heidenberger Kyle, Crawford Jacob, William Lamp, Culler Lauren, and Lehmann T. 2008. Evidence for Divergence Selection between the Molecular Forms of Anopheles gambiae: Role of Predation. BMC Evolutionary Biology: 11;8:5. pdf

Lenhart A, Eigege A, Kal A, Pam D, Miri ES, Gerlong G, Oneyka J, Sambo Y, Danboyi J, Ibrahim B, Dahl E, Kumbak D, Dakul A, Jinadu MY, Umaru J, Richards FO, and Lehmann T. 2007. Contributions of different mosquito species to the transmission of lymphatic filariasis in central Nigeria: Implications for monitoring infection by PCR in mosquito pools. Filaria J. 29;6:14. pdf

Kamau L, Munyekenye GO, Vulule JM, Lehmann T. 2007. Evaluating genetic differentiation of Anopheles arabiensis in relation to larval habitats in Kenya. Infect Genet Evol. 7(2):293-7. pdf

Diabate A, Dabire RK, Millogo N, Lehmann T. 2007. Evaluating the effect of postmating isolation between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 44: 60-4. pdf 300kb

Simard F, Licht M, Besansky NJ, Lehmann T. 2007. Polymorphism at the defensin gene in the Anopheles gambiae complex: testing different selection hypotheses. Infect Genet Evol. 7:285-92. pdf

Lehmann T, Dalton R, Kim EH, Dahl E, Diabate A, Dabire R, Dujardin JP. 2006. Genetic contribution to variation in larval development time, adult size, and longevity of starved adults of Anopheles gambiae. Infect Genet Evol. 2006: 6(5):410-6. pdf

Yaro AS, Dao A, Adamou A, Crawford JE, Ribeiro JM, Gwadz R, Traore SF, Lehmann T. 2006. The distribution of hatching time in Anopheles gambiae. Malar J: 22;5:19 pdf

Simard F, Lehmann T 2006. Predicting the Spread of a Transgene in African Malaria Vector populations: Current Knowledge and Limitations. A book chapter in Genetically Modified Mosquitoes for Malaria Control, edited by Christophe Bote. Landes Bioscience/Eurekah Pubmed, Georgetown, TX, USA. pdf 300kb

Diabat A, Roch DK, Kengne P, Brengues C, Thierry B, Ouari A, Simard F, and Lehmann T. 2006. Mixed-swarms of the Molecular M and S forms of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) in sympatric area from Burkina Faso. J. Med. Entomol.: 43: 480-483. pdf 125kb

Lehmann T, Marcet PL, Graham DH, Dahl ER, Dubey JP. 2006. Globalization and the population structure of Toxoplasma gondii. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 103(30):11423-8. Epub 2006 Jul 18. pdf

Yaro AS, Dao A, Adamou A, Crawford JE, Traore SF, Toure AM, Gwadz R Lehmann T. 2006. Reproductive output of female Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae): comparison of molecular forms. J Med Entomol. 43(5):833-9. pdf350kb

Diabat A, Roch DK, Kim EH, Ryan D, Niama M, Thierry B, Simard F, Gimnig EJ, Hawley AW, and Lehmann T. 2005. Larval development of the molecular forms of A. gambiae in different breeding sites: a transplantation experiment. J. Med. Entomol. 42:548-53. pdf 150kb

Dubey JP, Hill DE, Jones JL, Hightower AW, Kirkland E, Roberts JM, Marcet PL, Lehmann T, Vianna MC, Miska K, Sreekumar C, Kwok OC, Shen SK, Gamble HR. 2005. Prevalence of viable Toxoplasma gondii in beef, chicken, and pork from retail meat stores in the United States: risk assessment to consumers. J Parasitol. 91: 1082-93. pdf

Lehmann T, Graham D, Dahl E, and Dubey JP. 2004. Variation in the breeding structure of Toxoplasma gondii and the roles of selfing, drift and epistatic selection in maintaining linkage disequilibria. Inf. Genet. Evol. 4: 107-114 pdf 150kb

Dubey JP, Graham, DH De Young RW, Dahl E, Eberhard ML, Nace, EK, Won K, Bishop H, Punkosdy G, Sreekumar C,Vianna MCB, Shen SK, Kwok OCH, Machn M Sumners, JA Demarais, S Humphreys, JG, and Lehmann T. 2004. Molecular and biologic characteristics of isolates of Toxoplasma gondii from wildlife in the United States. J. Parasitol 90: 67-71. pdf

Lehmann T, Licht M, Gimnig J, Hightower, A, Vulule, JH, and Hawley WA. 2003. Spatial and temporal variation in kinship among Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes. J. Med. Entomol. 40: 421-429. pdf 150kb

Lehmann T, Graham D, Dahl E, Chirukandoth S, Launer F, Corn J, Gamble RH, and Dubey JP. 2003. Transmission dynamics of Toxoplasma gondii on a pig farm. Inf. Genet. Evol. 3: 135-141. pdf 200kb

Dubey JP, Graham DH, Dahl E, Sreekumar C, Lehmann T, Davis MF, and Morishita TY. 2003 Toxoplasma gondii Isolates from Free-Ranging Chickens from the United States. J. Parasitol. 89: 1060-2 pdf

Donnelly, M. J., Pinto J, Girod R, Besansky NJ, and Lehmann T. 2003. Revisiting the role of introgression vs. shared ancestral polymorphisms as key processes shaping genetic diversity in the recently separated sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Heredity 92: 61-68 pdf

Lehmann T, Licht M, Elissa E, Maega BTA, Chimumbwa JM Watsenga FT, Wondji CS, Simard F, Hawley WA 2003. Population structure of Anopheles gambiae in Africa. Journal of Heredity 94: 133-147. pdf

Donnelly M, Simard F, Lehmann T. 2002. Evolutionary Studies of malaria vectors. Trends in Parasitology 18: 75-80. pdf

Blackston CR, Dubey JP, Dotson, E, Su C, Thulliez P, Sibley D, and Lehmann T. 2001. High resolution typing of Toxoplasma gondii using microsatellite loci. Journal of Parasitology 87: 1472-1475. pdf

Donnelly M, Licht M, and Lehmann T 2001. The effect of past demographic events on population structure of Anopheles gambiae and A. arabiensis. Molecular Biology and Evolution 18: 1353-64. pdf

Lehmann T. and Beard B.C. Insect Disease Vectors. 2000. A book chapter in Molecular Epidemiology of Infectious Disease (Ed. R.C.A. Thompson). pp. 283-295. Chapman and Hall London. pdf

Lehmann T, Blackston CR, Besansky N, Escalante AA, Collins, FH. and Hawley, W.A. 2000. The effect of the Rift Valley on gene flow between Anopheles gambiae populations in Kenya: the mtDNA perspective. Journal of Heredity 91: 165-8. pdf

Lehmann T, Blackston C, Parmley, SF, Remington, JS, and Dubey JP. 2000. Strain typing of Toxoplasma gondii: comparison of antigen-coding and housekeeping genes. Journal of Parasitology 86: 960-971. pdf

Lehmann T, Hawley, WA, Grebert, H, and Collins, FH. 1999. The effect of the Rift Valley on gene flow between Anopheles gambiae populations in Kenya. Journal of Heredity: 90: 613-621. pdf 270kb

Lehmann T, Hawley, WA, Grebert H, and Collins FH. 1998. The effective population size of Anopheles gambiae in Kenya: implications on population structure. Molecular Biology and Evolution 15:264-276. pdf

Lehmann T, Besansky, NJ, Hawley, WA, Kamau, L, Fahey, TG, and Collins, FH. 1997. Microgeographic structure of Anopheles gambiae in western Kenya based on mtDNA and microsatellite loci. Molecular Ecology 6: 243 253. pdf 1.2mb

Lehmann T, Hawley WA, Kamau, L, Fontenille D, Simard F, and Collins FH. 1996a. Genetic differentiation of Anopheles gambiae from East and West Africa: comparison of microsatellite and allozyme loci. Heredity 77: 192 200. pdf

Lehmann T, Hawley, WA and Collins, FH. 1996b. An evaluation of constraints on microsatellite loci using null alleles. Genetics 144: 1155 1163. pdf

Lehmann T, Cupp, MS and Cupp, WE. 1995a. Analysis of migration success of Onchocerca lienalis microfilariae in Simulium vittatum. Journal of Helminthology 69: 47 52. pdf 1mb

Lehmann T, Cupp MS and Cupp, WE. 1995b. Chemical guidance of Onchocerca lienalis microfilariae to the thorax of Simulium vittatum. Parasitology 110: 329 337. pdf 1mb

Lehmann T. 1994. Reinfestation analysis to estimate ectoparasite population size, emergence and mortality rates. Journal of Medical Entomology. 31: 257 264. pdf

Lehmann T, Cupp MS, and Cupp WE. 1994a. Onchocerca lienalis: Rapid clearance of microfilariae within the black fly, Simulium vittatum. Experimental Parasitology 78: 183 193. pdf 2mb

Lehmann T, Cupp, MS and Cupp, WE 1994b. Onchocerca lienalis: A comparison of microfilariae loss in Simulium jenningsi and S. vittatum. Experimental Parasitology 79: 195 197. pdf

Lehmann T. 1993. Ectoparasites: Direct Impact on host Fitness. Parasitology Today 9: 8 13. pdf 2mb

Lehmann T. 1992a. Ectoparasite impact on Gerbillus andersoni allenbyi under natural conditions. Parasitology 104: 479 488.pdf 1mb

Lehmann T. 1992b. Reproductive activity of Synosternus cleopatrae in relation to host factors. Journal of Medical Entomology 29: 946 952. pdf

Past Group Members

Name Currently
Martin Donnelly Lecturer, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, UK
Frederic Simard Entomologist, IRD, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Fasso
Dr Douglas Graham Professor, Grand Valley State University, MI
Monica Licht Full time mother
Christie Blackston Emory University Clinical Research Center, Atlanta, GA
Erica Dahl PhD Student, Texas University, Galvaston, TX
Paula Marcet Associate Service Fellow, CDC, Atlanta, GA
Audrey Lenhart Research Entomologist, CDC, Atlanta, GA
Jacob Crawford PhD student, Cornell University, NY
Rodrigo Gonzalez PhD student, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
Howard Hamilton Medical student, Howard University, DC
Diabate Abdoulaye Head, Medical entomology, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Sante/Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
Jen Hume Core Manager, Seattle Biomed, WA
Kathryne Dieter Biomedical Research Institute, Rockville, MD
Guha Dharamajan Ramanujan Fellow, Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education & Research - Kolkatta, India

Related Links:

R. Gwadz's Entomology Section, LMVR, NIH
J. Ribeiro Vector Biology Section, LMVR, NIH
T. Wellems, Chief, LMVR, NIH
Martin Donnelly
Peter Armbruster
Frederic Simard
Gideon Wasserberg
Jiannong Xu

Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, NIAID, NIH,
12735 Twinbrook Parkway, Room 2W-09C,
Rockville MD 20852,
Phone: 301-451-1059,
Fax: 301-480-2038

Tovi collecting mosquitoes (Bamako, 2004)

     Tovi collecting mosquitoes in a hut

The Dry-Season Ecology Team (Mali, 2009)

     The Dry-Season Ecology Team (Mali, 2009)

Muffin searches for scent-tagged mosquitoes in Baobab hole

     Muffin searches for scent-tagged mosquitoes in a Baobab hole

Kona indicates putative shelter to Sory

     Kona indicates putative shelter to Sory

Diana and Yaro measuring metabolic rate

     Diana and Yaro measuring metabolic rate

Full Team dissecting mosquitoes (Bamako 2005)

     Full Team dissecting mosquitoes (2005)

Launch of aerial traps tethered to Helium filled balloon

     Launch of aerial traps tethered to Helium filled balloon

Mosquito Sorting (Bamako, 2005)

     Mosquito sorting after knock down